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‎VIMERCATI César‎

Reference : 4388

‎CONSTANTINOPLE et l'EGYPTE.‎

‎ Paris, Imprimerie d'Adolphe Blondeau, 1854, deuxième édition revue et corrigée par Charles Hertz, reliure demi-basane vert foncé , dos lisse, titre et faux-nerfs dorés, 13,5x21,5 cm, 378 pages. ‎


‎Rousseurs. Mouillure en bas d'ouvrage. ‎

Le Barde Bourguignon - Dijon

Phone number : 33 03 80 30 32 77

EUR15.00

‎Vincent, Alexandre (1797-1868) ‎

Reference : KXI-32319

‎Mémoire sur le calendrier des Lagides, à l'ocasion de la découverte du décret de Canope, lu à l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, dans les séances du mois de mars 1867 et suivantes Extrait de la "Revue archéologique", janvier 1868‎

‎Paris - Paris Aux Bureaux de la Revue archéologique, Didier et Cie, éditeurs - Imprimerie Lainé, 19 Rue des Saint-Pères 1868 - 1868 32 p. notes bibliographiques in-8, 16,1 x 24,6 cm Broché, couverture vieux rose, titre en noir, tampon en bleu de la "Librairie orientale et américaine G.P. Maisonneuve, 198 Bd St-Germain, Paris, VIIe" sur la première de couverture Couverture insolée avec petite déchirure et mouillures suprapaginales, exemplaire à l'intérieur en bon état ‎


‎par Alexandre Vincent, membre de l'Institut La dynastie des Lagides ou dynastie des Ptolémées (ou ptolémaïque) est une dynastie pharaonique, issue du général macédonien Ptolémée, fils de Lagos (d'où l'appellation « lagide ») qui règna sur l'Égypte de 323 à 30 avant notre ère‎

Jean-Denis Touzot Libraire - Paris

Phone number : 01 43 26 03 88

EUR25.00

‎VINGTRINIER Aimé.‎

Reference : 11638

‎ Soliman-Pacha - Colonel Sève - généralissime des armées égyptiennes ou Histoire des guerres de l'Égypte de 1820 à 1860 avec un portrait.‎

‎Paris, 1886 (17,5 x 25,5), 590 p. demi-reliure.‎


‎Egypte. Annotations au crayon dans les marges. ‎

Antinoë - Brest

Phone number : 02 98 80 52 48

EUR150.00

‎Violaine VANOYEKE‎

Reference : 19502

(1998)

‎Apprenez les hiéroglyphes de Hatchepsout‎

‎Michel Lafon, Paris, 1998. Grand in-8 cartonnage illustré, 16 x 24 cm, 32 pages, illustré. Très bon état.‎


Phone number : +33 (0) 4 94 53 89 34

EUR10.00

‎Violaine Vanoyeke‎

Reference : 19118

‎Hatchepsout la Pharaonne - Tome 2 - Le Pschent royal‎

‎ Succes du Livre, 2002. Format 15x23 cm, broche, 367 pages.Tres bon etat.‎


Librairie Frédéric Delbos

Phone number : 06 30 21 18 72

EUR5.00

‎Violaine Vanoyeke‎

Reference : 24895

‎Hatchepsout la Pharaonne - Tome 2 - Le Pschent royal‎

‎ Succes du Livre, 2002. Format 15x23 cm, broche, 367 pages.Bon etat.‎


Librairie Frédéric Delbos

Phone number : 06 30 21 18 72

EUR4.00

‎Violaine Vanoyeke‎

Reference : 19287

‎Les histoires d'amour des Pharaons‎

‎ Michel Lafon, 1997. Format 15x24 cm, broche, 276 pages.Tres bon etat.‎


Librairie Frédéric Delbos

Phone number : 06 30 21 18 72

EUR5.00

‎VIOLAINE VANOYEKE‎

Reference : 17001

‎LES HISTOIRES D'AMOUR DES PHARAONS ‎

‎ Broché - 15,5 x 23,5 - 277 pp - année 1997 - Editions Michel Lafon - illustrations -‎


Bouquinerie70 - Vesoul

Phone number : 09 67 76 84 33

EUR10.00

‎VIROLLEAUD (Ch.) et NAVILLE (Ed.), CLERMONT-GANNEAU (Ch.), POTTIER (Ed.).-‎

Reference : 33636

‎Un hypogée de la XIIe Dynastie Egyptienne à Byblos. (Extrait de la Revue Syria, 1922).‎

‎ P., Geuthner, 1922, in 4° broché, paginé 273 à 306 ; planches hors-texte et 10 figures. ‎


‎PHOTOS sur DEMANDE. Photos sur Demande PORT GRATUIT pour la FRANCE‎

Librairie ancienne le Bouquiniste Cumer-Fantin - Saint-Etienne

Phone number : 04 77 32 63 69

EUR28.00

‎VIROLLEAUD CHARLES‎

Reference : 15183

‎La déesse Anat‎

‎ Mission de Ras Shamra, tome IV / La déesse Anat, poème de Ras Shamra - Volume 28 de la Bibliothèque archéologique et historique publié par le Haut-Commisariat de la République Française en Syrie et au Liban, Service des antiquités. - Paris, Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1938. Grand broché, 113 page. + 13 planches hors-texte en fin de volume. Etat très correct‎


Librairie Au Coin Littéraire - STRASBOURG

Phone number : 06 08 66 42 66

EUR40.00

‎Vital COUTIN‎

Reference : LFA-126725213

(1937)

‎Le MAITRE de la GRANDE PYRAMIDE ANNONCE par le LANGAGE des PIERRES‎

‎Un ouvrage de 63 pages, format 120 x 190 mm, illustré, broché (traces d'humidité), publié en 1937, Editions Paul Leymarie, rare‎


‎153 : clé de l'énigme. Démonstration scientifique et morale des deux passages su Sauveur de la race humaine‎

Lettre de France, L'Art de Vivre à la Française

Phone number : 04 74 33 45 19

EUR40.00

‎VIVANT DENON‎

Reference : b27342

(1996)

‎VOYAGE DANS LA BASSE ET HAUTE EGYPTE‎

‎Pygmalion 1996. Les grandes aventures de l'archéologie; un volume in-8°(24x15cm); Broché; couverture couleurs. 323p. Illustrations hors-texte; Bon exemplaire.‎


Librairie Merolle - Lyon

Phone number : 04-37-45-07-31

EUR10.00

‎VIVANT DENON (Présentation de Jean-Claude VATIN).‎

Reference : 21085

‎ Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte.‎

‎Le Caire, 1989 (21,5 x 28,5), 323 p., broché sous jaquette.‎


‎Egypte. Volume de texte seul. Jaquette tâchée. ‎

Antinoë - Brest

Phone number : 02 98 80 52 48

EUR65.00

‎VIVANT DENON D.‎

Reference : R200051309

‎VOYAGE DANS LA BASSE ET LA HAUTE EGYPTE‎

‎ISBN : 2857043333. PYGMALION. 1990. In-8 Carré. Broché. Bon état. Couv. convenable. Dos satisfaisant. Intérieur frais. 325 pages- quelques illustrations en noir et blanc hors texte‎


‎Les grandes aventures de l'archéologie‎

Le-livre.fr / Le Village du Livre - Sablons

Phone number : 05 57 411 411

EUR49.50

‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29761

(1803)

‎"Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 109. (Poisson du Nil, Tête de chameau <br/> Portraits).<br />"‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 3 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. Un poisson du Nil, dont toute la peau du ventre fait une seconde vessie. N° 2. Étude d'une tête de chameau, qui crie lorsqu'on le charge trop ou qu'on le charge mal ; car ce bon animal ne se plaint que de l'injustice, encore faut-il qu'elle soit extrême. N° 3. Tête d'un Arabe bédouin (voyez le journal, tome I, page 91). 2. Un cheikh de Fua ; son teint brun et sa barbe blanche faisoient un beau contraste ; ils m'offroient l'immage de Laban. 3 et 4. Deux freres cheikhs de Ballasse, d'un caractere raphaélesque. N° 4. Quatre Arabes. Ce furent ceux qui furent nommés municipaux par le peuple de Rosette lorsque le gouvernement mamelouk quitta cette ville à l'approche de notre armée : le premier, à gauche, fut choisi, parce qu'il étoit brave, et avoit ramené une fois les femmes de Rosette, qui, allant pleurer hors la ville sur les tombeaux de leurs parents, avoient été enlevées par les Arabes du désert ; le second, parce qu'il étoit le plus doux et le meilleur ; le troisieme, parcequ'il étoit éclairé ; le quatrieme, parceque c'étoit le personnage le plus riche et le plus distingué. Peut-on mieux composer un corps des décisions duquel la société va dépendre? Si chacun de ces hommes avoit eu les qualités de tous les quatre, l'harmonie de l'ensemble n'eût peut-être pas été aussi parfaite. Légères rousseurs, infimes petites taches, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

Phone number : 01 56 08 08 85

EUR170.00

‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29763

(1803)

‎"Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 111. (Sauterelle du désert, Vieillard aveugle conduit par un enfant, Portraits).<br />"‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 3 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. La sauterelle du désert, la plaie de l'Egypte. Elle ne doit point être confondue avec les autres sauterelles grises, dont les champs, et particulièrement ceux de la basse Égypte, sont couverts, sans qu'elles y causent aucun désastre : celles-ci, couleur de rose et noir, de la même grandeur de l'estampe, sont vraiment un fléau ; elles sortent du désert, passent et ravagent comme un torrent dévastateur. Je ne puis juger si dans une saison où elles auroient trouvé pâture elles se seroient fixées davantage ; mais, dans la saison seche où je vis arriver la colonie, elles avoient l'inquiétude et l'instabilité de la faim qui ne trouve rien à dévorer ; sauvages comme le pays d'où elles sortent, elles sont seches et vigoureuses comme les autres habitants du désert (voyez le journal, tome II, page 218). N° 2. Vieillard aveugle conduit par un enfant ; groupe qui, pour être malheureusement trop répété en Égypte, n'en est pas moins touchant. N° 3. Tête d'un mendiant du Caire. Il parcouroit les rues tout nu, et chaque partie de son corps avoit, comme sa tête, tout le caractere du Silene antique ; je le vis le jour de l'insurrection, et j'espérois trouver un moment plus opportun pour le dessiner tout entier : je ne sais s'il fut victime de cet événement, mais je ne l'ai plus revu depuis. 2, 3, et 4, sont trois croisés de la Mekke, c'étoient de beaux et vigoureux hommes, que le malheur des circonstances nous obligeoit de regarder avec horreur. Le N° 5 est un habitant de Benhout ; j'ai dessiné tous ces personnages pendant et après le siege du château de ce village (voyez tome II, page 128). Très discrètes rousseurs, un petit manque angulaire, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29805

(1803)

‎"Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Tableau hiéroglyphique, extrait d'un manuscrit Egyptien. (Planche 141).<br />"‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 68x52,5cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche dépliante ornée d'une gravure ainsi décrite par l'auteur : Autre manuscrit trouvé à Thebes, et rapporté au moment où j'achevois mon ouvrage : il a été donné au général Andréossy, qui a bien voulu me le communiquer ; c'est le plus considérable de tous ceux que j'ai vus : il a douze pieds de longueur, et contient dix-neuf pages d'écriture, qu'il sera très intéressant de publier dès qu'on sera parvenu à lire ces especes de manuscrits : je me suis contenté de prendre la vignette, qui m'a paru assez intéressante pour mériter d'être ajoutée à douze autres estampes que je donne de plus que celles que j'avois annoncées à mes souscripteurs. Ce dernier manuscrit a quelque analogie avec celui en toile (planche CXXV), qui a de même dix-neuf pages, un tableau, et une vignette ou espece de frise qui regne sur le dessus de toutes les pages ; celle-ci est malheureusement trop fruste pour avoir conservé de l'intérêt, ainsi qu'on peut le voir dans la partie supérieure du tableau ; j'ai remarqué dans les fragments qui restent, des crocodiles, un scorpion, une écrevisse: ce manuscrit, divisé par chapitres, le commencement de chacun d'eux est écrit en rouge ; trois des pages semblent être la récapitulation ou le titre des chapitres: composés chacun d'une demi-ligne, le premier mot qui commence la ligne est le même tout le long de la page, et semble devoir être un article ou un pronom ; il y en a un différent à chacune des pages : je les ai copiés fidèlement tous les trois (voyez lettres A, B, et C). Le papyrus de ce dernier manuscrit m'a paru plus fin, l'écriture d'un plus beau caractere, et la touche du dessin un peu plus ferme, et d'un style plus précis: je crois qu'il est de ces especes de dessins comme de ceux que nous voyons sur les vases étrusques, c'est-à-dire qu'il doit y avoir tout naturellement une grande variété dans la perfection de leur exécution, et qu'il est possible qu'il en existe d'aussi purs et d'aussi précieux que la sculpture de certains hiéroglyphes qui ont la précision de l'orfèvrerie. J'ai gravé celui-ci moi-même, et j'y ai mis une grande imitation de la touche ; ses couleurs se sont conservées très vives ; elles sont posées à plat ; je les ai blasonnées dans la gravure pour les faire connoître : la ligne verticale indique le rouge, la ligne horizontale le jaune, l'inclinée le verd, et la croisée le noir ; la premiere disposition du tabeau avoit été tracée au crayon gris ; il en paroît encore quelques traces près des colonnes (voyez les lignes ponctuées). En humectant le papyrus pour le dérouler, il a répandu une odeur si forte et si pénétrante, quoiqu'agréable, qu'il a fallu ouvrir les fenêtres pour ne pas en être incommodé. J'ai cru trouver dans les personnages une nouvelle raison de penser que ces coiffures étranges, présentant des têtes d'animaux sur des corps d'hommes, étoient des especes de masques, des signes extérieurs qui indiquoient la dignité attachée aux degrés d'initiations, et dont les initiés étoient revêtus dans les cérémonies. La figure n° 15, dans l'acte d'écrire, est un personnage vivant, dans un mouvement actif ; ses jambes et ses bras sont rouges, de couleur animée, et sa tête, surmontée d'un bec d'oiseau, ne doit être qu'une figure superposée. La figure 3, entre deux divinités, est sans marques de dignité, sans barbe ; elle a le simple habit sans couleur que portoient tous les Égyptiens ; sa chair est rouge ; elle est dans l'attitude d'un aspirant, et en est peut-être un : toutes les petites statues, trouvées étudiant sur des manuscrits, sont également sans marque de dignité, sans barbe, et paroissent toutes être jeunes. Les deux figures n° 10 et 13, qui sont sous le fléau de la balance, et qui semblent en régler l'équilibre, sont du genre de la premiere ; tandis que la petite, n° 5, vêtue d'une seule toile blanche, et qui met une divinité dans un des bassins de la balance, est de la classe de celle n° 3 ; elle paroît établir l'équilibre de l'autre bassin, dans lequel est l'emblême de la terre : les deux extrémités du fléau de la balance sont terminées par deux fleurs de lotus, peut-être signifiant l'équilibre des eaux, qui fait seul fleurir cette plante; et la figure du chien ou du cynocéphale, n° 8, qui est au-dessus du support, qui est verte, qui a un gros ventre, et qui épanche de l'eau sur l'image de la terre, qui lui est présentée par l'initié à la figure d'Osiris, est peut-être le vent de la pluie, celui qui presse les nuages contre la chaîne des montagnes de la lune, celui qui produit le trop ou trop peu d'inondation ; cette figure d'Osiris, n° 10, paroît avec l'une et l'autre main en chercher l'équilibre. L'espece de lion, n° 17, avec des mamelles, qui est sur un autel, la gueule ouverte, la langue haletante, est aussi une particularité que je n'ai trouvée nulle part ailleurs ; l'offrande d'une fleur aquatique, et d'un vase transparent à moitié plein d'eau, n° 18et 19, n'indiqueroit-elle pas l'invocation à la divinité pour obtenir l'entiere inondation dont la terre altérée sollicite le secours? C'est toujours pour obtenir de l'eau que l'on prie en Égypte, parceque c'est toujours l'eau qui y produit tout, qui est le principe de tout, l'objet de tous les voeux, la source de toutes les craintes, parceque c'est le premier besoin , le principe de la végétation et celui de l'abondance. Chaque antiquité que l'on trouve fournit une assertion qui souvent ne vient qu'à l'appui d'une erreur : voulant donner une histoire à un grand peuple éclairé, puissant, qu'une longue suite de siecles a séparé de nous pendant nombre et nombre de siecles par une barriere mystérieuse, chacun a voulu voir dans les premiers fragments des monuments égyptiens apportés en Europe l'application d'un systême prématuré; impatient, on a voulu y trouver l'explication du ciel, de la terre, les principes du gouvernement de ce peuple, et le tableau de ses moeurs ; celui des cérémonies de son culte, de ses arts, de ses sciences, et de son industrie : les formes hiéroglyphiques se sont prêtées au délire de l'imagination ; et, s'appuyant sur des hypotheses, chacun s'est avancé avec la même autorité par des routes différentes, et toutes également obscures et hasardées. Un auteur, trouvant un jour une suite de vignettes , s'avisa de parodier ces estampes ; le roman se trouvant agréable, personne ne s'avisa de revendiquer sa conquête : mais ici que l'histoire peut protester contre la parodie chaque fois qu'on apporte une authenticité nouvelle, plus les objets de comparaison se multiplient, et plus on craint de hasarder des rêves, et moins par conséquent on ose écrire. Amasser sans système et rassembler des monuments qui offrent des rapprochements et des rapports, si ce n'est pas donner la lumiere, c'est battre la pierre dont s'échappe l'étincelle qui la produit. Bien pénétré de ce sentiment, j'ai trouvé en moi ce courage passif qu'il falloit avoir pour faire des dessins hiéroglyphiques, cette pieuse ardeur, ce zele aveugle enfin qui ne peut être comparé qu'à celui de nos vestales, qui, naguere, dans une langue étrangere, prioient, croyoient, adoroient, sans comprendre.Important manque angulaire sans atteinte à la gravure, plusieurs traces de pliure, quelques infimes traces de rousseurs, sinon bel état de conservation.Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "68x52,5cm" une feuille‎


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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29644

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : 1. Mosquée près Rossette. 2. Calis ou canal qui conduit l'eau au Caire. 3. L'Aqueduc qui conduit l'eau du Nil au Caire. (Planche 21).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 3 vues ainsi décrites par l'auteur : N° 1. Une mosquée, avec plusieurs santons ou tombeaux situés au nord de Rosette ; le mur à hauteur d'appui, qui est dans le milieu de l'estampe, sert de chaussée, lors de l'inondation, pour communiquer des habitations au Nil : dans le fond est l'isle Baschi. N° 2. Le khalydge, ou canal qui conduit l'eau du Nil au Caire, lorsque l'inondation est arrivée à une certaine élévation ; l'ouverture de ce canal est une fête annuelle, d'autant plus gaie qu'elle annonce l'abondance, puisque le manque d'eau est le seul fléau qui puisse amener la disette en Egypte. Le jour de cette cérémonie, les beys étoient placés dans le kiosque que l'on voit dans cette planche : le canal y est représenté dans le moment où il porte les bateaux du Nil au Caire ; dans le fond est l'isle de Rhaoudah ; à gauche de l'estampe sont des montagnes de décombres, et la prise d'eau du grand aqueduc. Tous les voyageurs ont fait la description de l'ouverture du khalydge, et particulièrement Savari. N° 3. L'aqueduc qui conduit l'eau du Nil au Caire ; les colonnes que l'on voit en avant renversées et rompues sont les ruines d'un édifice, dont l'institut me demanda un rapport, et dont je vais rendre compte en citant le rapport lui-même. Ces fûts de colonnes, éloignées d'environ 40 centimetres du minaret d'une mosquée en ruine, qui a été bien bâtie, et dont les arrachements prolongés ont nécessairement englobé ces débris , doivent porter à croire qu'ils en faisoient partie : la richesse de la matiere de ces fragments, la perfection d'une partie de ces colonnes, l'inégalité absolue de leurs dimensions, l'empreinte des mains barbares marquée sur toutes leurs réparations, le style, plus barbare encore, de tous les détails qu'on y a ajoutés, font penser que s'il existoit quelques morceaux antiques dans cet édifice, ils y avoient été employés dans un temps rapproché de ces époques malheureuses, où la gloire des armes ne s'allioit point à la philosophie et à l'amour des arts, où le caprice brutal, la barbare adulation en régloient les déterminations politiques, faisoient bâtir une ville où Amroun avoit dressé sa tente, la faisoient abandonner pour aller la rebâtir où Saladin avoit vaincu le dernier des souverains Mamelouks. Dans ces temps, les beaux restes de la noble antiquité étoient groupés avec de lourdes inepties, et formoient de monstrueuses magnificences, ainsi qu'on peut le remarquer dans cette immense fabrique, appelée le Palais de Joseph , construite, comme celle-ci, de morceaux précieux et inégaux, et raccordés parles mêmes moyens; dans ces constructions, où les chapiteaux et les bases avec toutes sortes de profils vont chercher les colonnes quand les colonnes n'arrivent pas jusqu'à eux. Mais pour assigner un siecle à ces édifices, il fandroit connoître celui où ont régné les princes qui les ont fait construire : peut-être est-il réservé à l'activité française de rendre des annales aux Arabes ; plus instruits dans leur langue, de découvrir des manuscrits qui fixent des époques à leur histoire, et de jeter des lumieres sur la ténébreuse antiquité par la lecture des hiéroglyphes, de fixer le temps moyen par des recherches littéraires sur le regne des kalifes, par là laisser la part qui appartient aux siecles d'engourdissement où nous avons trouvé l'Egypte, et de faire une nouvelle époque en ramenant les sciences et les arts dans leur pays natal. Légères rousseurs marginales, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29801

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Manuscrit trouvé dans l'enveloppe d'une momie. (Planche 137).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 84x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche dépliante ornée d'une gravure ainsi décrite par l'auteur : Ce second manuscrit, beaucoup plus petit, roulé de gauche à droite, a pour particularité un titre au revers, composé de neuf caracteres, que j'ai placés à la droite de l'estampe ; le dedans représente un tableau de trois rangs de figures, parsemées d'inscriptions à colonnes toutes verticales, à l'exception d'une seule ligne horizontale : il n'y a aucune partie qui soit cursive, comme dans l'autre manuscrit ; et tous les caracteres étant isolés, et l'un sur l'autre sans qu'il y en ait jamais deux d'accolés, cela peut faire croire que dans ces caracteres d'inscription chaque figure est un mot. Le tableau général semble être une cérémonie mortuaire ; dans la derniere bande on voit évidemment une momie dans une barque, passant un fleuve, le Styx peut-être : dans la partie droite la même momie est reçue dans les bras d'une figure d'Orus ou la terre ; dans la bande du milieu il y a une autre barque portant un Jupiter Ammon, traîné par huit personnages alternativement masculins et féminins. II est à remarquer que la divinité qui est sur la barque est enveloppée d'un serpent, et quatre divinités de même forme dans la bande de dessous sont assises sur des serpents, et des jets de lumiere leur sortent de la bouche, et descendent jusqu'à leurs pieds ; dans la bande de dessus et dans celle de dessous ,huit figures humaines, qui semblent être des prêtres, marchent en avant les bras élevés dans l'attitude de l'exclamation : le nombre de huit semble être consacré dans ce tableau, puisqu'il se répete dans les trois bandes de figures.Sur la bande du milieu, derriere la divinité en bateau, est un autel, sur lequel est accroupi un chakal ou loup d'Egypte ; sur le panneau de l'autel sont deux vases d'eau lustrale, au milieu desquels est une figure représentant une mesure de l'accroissement du Nil, ainsi que j'ai pu le présumer pour l'avoir vue souvent mieux prononcée dans des figures sculptées avec soin : on doit dire cependant que la négligence avec laquelle tout cela est fait tient plus à la vélocité de l'exécution qu'à l'ineptie du dessinateur ; car on peut remarquer dans ces gros traits peu soignés une précision et un tact qui ne manquent ni de finesse ni de sûreté.Ce manuscrit est dépourvu des couleurs des autres ; on n'y voit que du noir et du rouge : il seroit bien difficile de déterminer quelle est la raison qui a pu motiver cette variété ; mais comme il peut y en avoir une, j'ai pris le parti de faire graver par deux lignes fines tout ce qui est en rouge, et une grosse ligne pleine ce qui est en noir. Légères rousseurs principalement marginales, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 84x54cm une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29755

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 105. (Portraits).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 3 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. A droite, n° 1 et 2, deux membres du gouvernement d'Alexandrie, dessinés le jour de notre entrée dans cette ville. La tête vue de face, n° 3, est celle d'un Arabe ; son caractere de dignité rappelle celui des têtes de Raphaël et du Poussin : ces deux grands artistes avoient sans doute fait dessiner les figures des orientaux pour en caractériser leurs sublimes conceptions, ou bien le besoin de rendre ce qu'ils vouloient exprimer leur en avoit fait deviner les belles formes et la noble gravité. La tête n° 4 est celle de Koraim, schérif d'Alexandrie, qui commandoit dans cette ville lorsque nous y arrivâmes (voyez le journal, tome I, pages 48 et 53): ce fut l'avarice qui trompa son esprit naturel ; il nous trahit par la crainte de compromettre sa fortune ; il quitta notre parti qu'il avoit embrassé, il devint criminel, et fut puni comme traître. N° 2. 1. Une tête de Cophte. 2. Un esclave de la Mekke (voyez le journal, tome II, page 182): je l'ai dessiné lorsque, douloureusement affecté, il regardoit son maître qu'il croyoit au moment d'expirer ; je regrette de ne l'avoir pas dessiné lorsqu'il apprit qu'il ne mourroit pas, pour faire connoître à quel degré le physique d'un être sensible peut être changé par la différence de ses affections, et comment cette physionomie si longue, si sévere, et si triste, pouvoit devenir aimable et gaie. 3. Un Arabe. 4. Un homme de loi. N° 3. 1. Un Arabe qui a une fluxion sur l'il ; dans ces cas fréquents ils baissent leurs turbans sur la partie affligée, et continuent à veiller à leurs intérêts. 2. Un cheikh de village. 3. Un jeune homme marié de l'année, auquel par cela il vient d'être permis de porter la barbe ; cette figure, naïve et douce, est peut-être l'expression et le caractere le plus général des jeunes gens de cet âge. En Egypte les enfants sont laids et débiles, et presque tous les vieillards sont beaux. Les trois têtes qui suivent sont trois vieux Mamelouks. Celui n° 4 étoit un kiachef d'Osman-bey que nous avions fait prisonnier : il étoit d'origine allemande, ce qu'on voit tout d'abord ; cinquante ans d'expatriation, et la barbe, n'avoient point encore changé en lui le caractere national. 5. Un grave Asiatique, Mamelouk réformé, et vivant d'une pension de son maître, comme il arrive lorsque, faute de talents ou de circonstances heureuses, un Mamelouk n'a jamais été dans le cas d'être avancé en grade ; une paie de retraite et quelques gratifications assurent à ses derniers jours une douce tranquillité, soit dans la maison du bey auquel il a appartenu, soit dans la maison d'un paysan, auquel il paie pension. 6. Vieux Mamelouk de race maure. 7. Un Mamelouk en activité, de race espagnole. Rousseurs, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 40x54cm une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

Phone number : 01 56 08 08 85

EUR150.00

‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29756

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 106. (Portraits).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon.Planche composée de 3 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. Portrait du pacha qui commandoit les troupes turkes au débarquement à Aboukir, en l'an 7, et qui fut fait prisonnier à la bataille du 7 thermidor ; blessé au bras gauche, et voyant la déroute totale des siens, il se précipita sur celui qui la causoit, et blessa le général Murat d'un coup de pistolet (voyez le journal, tome II, page 333). N° 2. La tête à droite, coiffée d'un turban, est celle d'un jeune prince arabe de la race des Ababdes, qui vint faire alliance avec nous après la défaite des Mamelouks à Syene (voy. le journal, tome II, pag. 219). Ce fut celui qui nous accompagna la premiere fois que nous allâmes à Cosséïr, et qui me donna à dîner dans le désert (voyez tome II, page 236). La tête à côté est celle de son oncle ; ils étoient peu basanés, fort glorieux, et fort intéressés ; leurs manieres étoient cependant douces et polies, et leur caractere tranquille. Le jeune homme qui a la tête nue étoit un page favori du jeune prince ; il avoit de très beaux yeux, et au premier aspect paroissoit être une jeune fille ; il montoit un petit dromadaire charmant ; tout son vêtement consistoit en une saie rayée, qui lui ceignoit les reins ; il avoit pour armure, une lance, un sabre, et sur le bras gauche une javeline ; ses cheveux, crépus et non laineux, étaient parfumés ; noués au-dessus de la tête, ils étoient toute sa coiffure malgré l'ardente chaleur du tropique et du désert. N° 3. La tête à droite est celle d'un Mamelouk noir, d'une grande beauté, et offrant l'aspect d'un de ces héros africains dont l'histoire et les contes arabes nous font concevoir l'idée. Celui du milieu étoit un Mamelouk, appartenant au chef Elbekri, un des grands seigneurs du Caire, descendant des kalifes ; ce Mamelouk étoit un de ses favoris ; il devoit épouser une fille de son maître, et faisoit les honneurs de sa maison, lorsque, quelques jours avant le départ de Bonaparte , ce seigneur lui donna une fête, à l'issue de laquelle il imagina de lui faire présent du jeune homme qui l'avoit servi : par hasard il fut celui qui accompagnoit Bonaparte le jour qu'il partit du Caire, et fut celui de sa maison qui fut amené en France ; tant le sort qui agit sur toutes nos destinées influe plus puissamment encore sur celle de cette espece d'homme née pour appartenir jusqu'à ce qu'elle commande ! Les deux têtes à gauche sont celles d'un jeune noir de Darfour, destiné aussi à être un Mamelouk, et qui, lorsqu'il m'échut en partage, faisoit sa premiere éducation au service des femmes , auquel sont employés les jeunes esclaves jusqu'au temps où on commence à les exercer aux armes et à l'équitation. Discrètes rousseurs, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

Phone number : 01 56 08 08 85

EUR150.00

‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29760

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 108. (Ichneumon <br/> Portraits).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 3 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. L'ichneumon, connu aussi sous le nom de rat de Pharaon, de la famille des mangoustes ; il se cache le plus souvent à travers des joncs, et se tient dans les marais, près des villages, dont il va dérober les poules et les ufs : j'en ai vu de la grosseur d'une loutre et du même poil. L'individu que j'ai dessiné étoit jeune. Ce que l'on raconte de l'antipathie de l'ichneumon et du crocodile, que le premier non seulement mange les ufs de l'autre, mais que, lorsqu'il dort la bouche ouverte, il franchit son gosier et va lui dévorer les intestins, est une des nombreuses fables ridicules que l'on fait du crocodile : ces deux animaux n'ont jamais rien à démêler ensemble ; ils n'habitent point les mêmes parages ; on ne voit point de crocodiles dans la basse Égypte ; on ne voit point d'ichneumon dans la haute. N° 2. Deux moines copthes (voyez l'article Cophte dans le journal, tome I, page 136): le troisieme à droite est Malem Jacob, personnage distingué et d'un mérite remarquable ; il avoit fait les campagnes de Mourat-bey dans les guerres de ce bey contre les Turks , et en étoit fort estimé et fort regretté ; il avoit embrassé notre parti, et y a été constamment fidele ; il respectoit Desaix, et lui étoit très attaché ; il fit avec lui, comme intendant-général, toute l'expédition de la haute Égypte, et nous fut toujours d'une grande utilité : il jouissoit d'une fortune considérable, et d'une haute considération dans le pays ; il déployoit un faste oriental, qui étoit d'une opposition très remarquable avec la simplicité de son général. Lorsqu'il apprit qu'après la mort de Desaix on s'occupoit de lui élever un tombeau, il écrivit qu'à quelque somme que pussent s'élever les frais de ce monument, il s'engageoit à en payer le tiers, à condition qu'on inscriroit sur le mausolée que Malem Jacob, l'ami de Desaix, avoit toujours combattu près de lui. Il y a dans le sentiment de cette phrase autant de sensibilité que d'amour de la belle gloire. Ce brave bomme, ce prodige de sa race, qui avoit suivi les Français dans leur retraite, mourut dans la traversée ; et les dernieres paroles qu'il prononça furent pour demander que son corps fût déposé dans le tombeau de Desaix. N° 3. 1,2,3. Trois autres Cophtes. 4, 5, sont des cheikhs arabes. 7. Le bon et honnête cheikh du village de Chaabbas-Amrs, dont je parle dans mon journal, tome I, page 168. Rousseurs, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 40x54cm une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique ‎

Reference : 29762

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : Planche 110. (Portraits).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio non rognée, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 2 gravures ainsi décrits par l'auteur : N° 1. Têtes d'Arabes.Toute la premiere file a été prise à une assemblée de notables dans le moment qu'on leur faisoit lecture d'un manifeste.Les deux premiers de la seconde file, deux cheikhs de Fua, dans la basse Egypte : le troisieme, le domestique qui m'a servi dans toute l'expédition, aussi distingué par le caractere moral que par la noblesse des formes ; il avoit non seulement toutes les qualités qu'on recherche dans un serviteur, mais toutes celles qu'on peut desirer dans un ami : il n'a renoncé à me suivre que parce qu'il n'a pu résister aux justes regrets et aux larmes de sa mere ; c'est le seul être qui m'en ait fait verser en quittant l'Egypte : je ne me consolai de le perdre qu'en lui donnant tant de choses, que toutes rassemblées je pusse penser que je lui assurois une petite fortune. N° 2. 1. Un moine grec. 2. Un Juif de Jérusalem (voyez le journal, tome I, page 141). 3. Un primat d'Alexandrie, homme plein d'esprit, de noblesse, et de grace, mais dont toutes les qualités étoient gâtées par un orgueil désordonné. 4. Un autre Grec de Rosette (voyez l'article des Grecs dans le journal, tome I, page 140). Discrètes rousseurs principalement marginales, un infime manque angulaire, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

Phone number : 01 56 08 08 85

EUR170.00

‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique & BALTARD (sculpsit) ‎

Reference : 29694

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : 1. Le Typhonium d'Appolinopolis. 2. Intérieur du temple d'Appolinopolis à Etfoù. (Planche 57).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon.Planche composée de 2 vues ainsi décrites par l'auteur : N° 1. Le typhonium d'Apollinopolis magna à Etfu ; ce petit temple , quoiqu'enfoui dans les décombres et les sables, est encore très intéressant dans ses détails ; ses ornements sont d'une exécution recherchée ; il est situé au sud, et à peu de distance du grand temple, dont on voit la sommité des môles qui flanquent la porte d'entrée ; en avant du sanctuaire du typhonium on apperçoit des arrachements de construction qui attestent que ce petit temple avoit eu son portique ; la colonne dont on voit le chapiteau en est encore une preuve ; ceux de la galerie qui entourent le sanctuaire sont décorés, sur la dalle qui les surmonte, de quatre figures de la divinité ( voyez ce chapiteau à part, planche LX, n° 9).N° 2. Vue de l'intérieur du grand temple d'Apollinopolis, prise de dessous le portique entre les deux premieres colonnes de gauche (voyez le plan planche LXI, lettre D). Cette vue donne une idée de l'intérieur de ce monument, de sa magnificence , de la recherche de son exécution, de ses plates-bandes et de ses architraves, de la beauté et de la variété des chapiteaux, des colonnes, de leurs atterrissements progressifs causés par l'amoncellement des ordures et des décombres des maisons de ceux qui s'y logent encore ; ces atterrissements, l'ouvrage des siecles, sont produits par de chétives fabriques construites et détruites successivement sur le comble du temple, et dans la cour qui est entre le portique et la porte d'entrée, qui forme le second plan de cette vue ; dans le fond sont les ruines de l'ancienne ville, qui recouvertes de sables forment maintenant des monticules qui dominent le temple à l'ouest. Rousseurs, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


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‎ VIVANT DENON Dominique & BALTARD (sculpsit) ‎

Reference : 29702

(1803)

‎Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte : 1. Ruines de la porte d'un temple d'Eléphantine. 2. Ruines d'un des temples d'Eléphantine. (Planche 65).<br />‎

‎" - Didot, Paris 1803, 40,5x54cm, une feuille. - Gravure originale in folio, extraite du Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte de Vivant Denon. Planche composée de 2 vues ainsi décrites par l'auteur : N° 1. Reste de deux chambranles d'une porte, aussi grande que magnifique, construite en granit, et couverte d'hiéroglyphes, située à la partie la plus élevée de l'isle Éléphantine, près le temple de Cneph. N° 2. Vue de la ruine d'un temple de l'isle Éléphantine, prise à l'angle sud-est, d'où on voit la portion de galerie qui entouroit le temple ; on peut voir un autre aspect du même temple, planche LXIII, n° 2. Infime insolation marginale, un léger accroc marginal habilement restauré à l'aide d'un morceau de filmoplast, sinon bel état de conservation. Publié pour la première fois en deux volumes, dont un atlas de gravures, chez Didot, en 1802, le 'Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte' connut un tel succès qu'il fut traduit dès 1803 en Anglais et en Allemand, puis quelques années plus tard en Hollandais et en Italien, notamment. Presque toutes les planches sont dessinées par Denon, qui en a aussi gravé lui-même un petit nombre, notamment des portraits d'habitants d'Egypte, qui ont encore gardée toute la fraîcheur d'esquisses prises sur le vif (nos 104-111). Une bonne vingtaine de graveurs ont également collaboré à la création des eaux-fortes dont Baltard, Galien, Réville et d'autres. Dominique Vivant, baron Denon, dit Vivant Denon, né à Givry le 4 janvier 1747 et mort à Paris le 27 avril 1825, est un graveur, écrivain, diplomate et administrateur français. A l'invitation de Bonaparte, il se joint à l'expédition d'Egypte en embarquant dès le 14 mai 1798 sur la frégate "" La Junon "". Protégé par les troupes françaises, il a l'opportunité de parcourir le pays dans tous les sens, afin de rassembler le matériau qui servit de base à son travail artistique et littéraire le plus important. Il accompagne en particulier le général Desaix en Haute Egypte, dont il rapporte de très nombreux croquis, lavis à l'encre et autres dessins à la plume, à la pierre noire, ou à la sanguine. Il dessine sans relâche, le plus souvent sur son genou, debout ou même à cheval, et parfois jusque sous le feu de l'ennemi. A l'issue d'un voyage de 13 mois durant lesquels il dessine plusieurs milliers de croquis, Vivant Denon rentre en France avec Bonaparte, et devient le premier artiste à publier le récit de cette expédition. Les 141 planches qui accompagnent son Journal retracent l'ensemble de son voyage, depuis les côtes de la Corse jusqu'aux monuments pharaoniques de la Haute Egypte. Bonaparte le nomme ensuite directeur général du musée central de la République, qui devient le musée Napoléon, puis le musée royal du Louvre et administrateur des arts. En 1805, Vivant Denon relance le projet de la colonne Vendôme, qui avait été suspendu en 1803. Il organise ensuite des expéditions dans toute l'Europe impériale pour amasser les objets d'art, qui sont pillés pour être emportés au Louvre. En 1814, Louis XVIII le confirme à la tête du Louvre, dont une aile porte encore son nom aujourd'hui. Il est considéré comme un grand précurseur de la muséologie, de l'histoire de l'art et de l'égyptologie. - Photos sur www.Edition-originale.com - [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] Original, unshaved, full-page etching from the ""Imperial edition"" of the Description de l'Égypte, or 'Recueil des observations et recherches faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition française, publié par les ordres de Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand [A Collection of the observations and research carried out in Egypt during the French expedition, published on the orders of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon the Great]'. Produced between February 1802 and 1830 on the orders of Naopleon Bonaparte and published between 1809 and 1828, 1,000 copies were printed and distributed to institutions, on vergé paper with an 'Égypte ancienne et moderne' watermark, visible when held up to the light. Light marginal spotting not touching image, otherwise in very fresh, fine condition. An engraving from the Description de l'Egypte, one of the masterpieces of French printing and the birth of a new field: Egyptology. A gigantic survey of Egypt at the time of Bonaparte's conquests in 1798 and 1799, the work is divided into 13 volumes of engravings making up 892 plates, of which 72 colored, as well as presenting the splendors of the Egypt of the Pharaohs in 9 volumes. The other volumes discuss natural history and present a fascinating portrait of Coptic and Islamic Egypt as it was seen by Bonaparte's Eastern Armies. The 'Egyptian campaign', militarily a disaster, demonstrates, through the engravings of the Description d'Egypte, the scientific success it nonetheless became thanks to the 167 expert members of the Commission of the Sciences and Arts of the Institut d'Egypte [Egyptian Institute] who followed Napoleon's army. The Institut gathered together in Egypt the mathematician Monge, the chemist Berthollet, the naturalist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as well as numerous artists, engineers, architects and doctors. They were tasked with re-discovering modern and ancient Egypt and displaying its natural treasures as well as the know-how of its inhabitants. This edition, the so-called ""Imperial"" edition of the plates for the Description de l'Egypte was printed in four large formats, two of which were specially created for it and christened ""Moyen-Egypte"" and ""Grand-Egypte"". A special press was built to print it, the process extending over 20 years, from 1809 to 1829. The ""Imperial"" edition proved so popular that a second edition, this time in black and white and without the ""Egypte ancienne et moderne"" watermark - known as the ""Royal Edition"" - was published during the Restoration by the printing house of C.-L.-F. Panckoucke (Paris). The engravings of the Description d'Egypte owe a great deal to Baron Dominique-Vivant Denon, illustrator, diplomat, collector and later Director of the Musée Napoléon (the Louvre). His exploration of the South of Egypt gave Bonaparte the idea of sending the experts of the Institut there, thus creating a faithful and complete portrait of the area. This was the research gathered together from 1802 in the mammoth Description de L'Egypte. Denon embarked on this story of archeological exploration at the age of 51, reaching first Alexandria and then Cairo before exploring Upper Egypt. Along with the members of the Institut d'Egypte, the Natural History Museum's painter H.J. Redouté (brother of Pierre-Joseph Redouté, author of Roses), the mineralogist Dolomiue, and the draughtsman Joly, Denon then explored the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. When, however, he joined the 21st Light Infantry Regiment as it marched across Upper Egypt in pursuit of the retreating Mameluks in November 1798, he found himself the only civilian. In the very midst of the battle itself, he reeled off sketches of the works of art that peppered his path right up to the threshold of the Sudan. He said that he had crossed ""a country that is, apart from its name, entirely unknown to Europeans, and therefore everything was worth describing"" (Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte en 1798 et 1799, 1817). On his return to Cairo, the great general, spellbound by Denon's accounts and drawings ordered two commissions to be set up, led by the engineers Fourier and Costaz. They were tasked with the scientific study of the ancient remains in Upper Egypt; research that proved a significant contribution to the monumental Description d'Egypte, from which this plate is taken. ANCIENT EGYPTThese engravings therefore represent a unique body of material that contributed to Jean-François Champollion's deciphering of hieroglyphics, and which mark the beginning of the line of Mariette, Maspero and Carter, who would reshape the face of Ancient Egypt. They also started a craze that gave birth to the phenomenon of Egyptomania and the Orientalism of Delacroix, Fromentin, Marilhat, Decamps and Théophile Gautier. Financiers, politicians, merchants and all kinds of treasure-hunters made their way to the banks of the Nile in search of riches, following this rediscovery of Egypt. The originators of Egyptology, these plates were to have a hugely influential afterlife. NATURAL HISTORYThese engravings show the scientific genius of the French experts then working on the ground in Egypt, laying the foundations for its becoming a French colony. This colonizing project, which had been mooted since the reign of Louis XIV, was now accompanied - with Bonaparte's arrival - by an in-depth study of the country's fauna and flora thanks to the work of the most eminent naturalists, mineralogists, and entomologists of the day. The Description de l'Egypte shows all of this immense scientific undertaking through its engravings, which were done after drawings by members of the Academy of Science, including Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Alire Raffenau-Delile and Henri-Joseph Redouté. In the words of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, ""We have gathered the material for the greatest work that a nation could hope to undertake. In mourning the fate of so many brave soldiers who - after so many glorious exploits - fell in Egypt, we shall be able to console ourselves that such precious works came into being."" MODERN EGYPTThe genius of the experts of the Institut d'Egypte is revealed in the plates of the section known as ""Modern Egypte"". Architecture, industry, social organization, conditions of health, irrigation, music, and crafts, are all presented with exceptional precision and powers of description. The spirit of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie runs through the work of the draughtsmen of the Description de L'Egypte, who accompanied the text volumes with numerous detailed plates, undertaking to produce a portrait of the local population that was imbued with both beauty and respect. Wealthy Pashas and simple artisan potters are sensitively represented here, going about their business in beautifully composed images that nonetheless do not fall into the traps of idealism or caricature. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE (the ""Cairo"" plates) The set of engravings to which this plate belongs constitutes one of the first complete studies of the monuments of Islamic Egypt in Cairo, bringing together maps, sections and elevations of mosques, mausoleums and fortifications, from the Tulunid era in the 9th century up to the Mameluk constructions contemporaneous with the arrival of the Bonapartist troops. At the same time, the architects and engineers of the Institut d'Egypte also made a big series of plates dedicated to civilian housing and edifices in Cairo, including both grander and more modest constructions, providing a precious picture of life in Cairo at the end of the 19th century. BAB AL FOUTOUH Bab el-Foutouh, "" The Conquest Gate"" marks the northern limit of Fatimid old Cairo. Rebuilt in 1087, it is highly defensive in nature owing to the turbulent climate in 11th Century Cairo, which saw a number of popular uprisings. An imposing gate, it has two semicircular towers with low-slung arches made of heavy blocks of stone anchored within the ramparts. The sizeable passage through the gate (4.85m wide by 6.79m high) has a shallow dome. BAB EL NASR Bab el-Nasr, ""The Victory Gate"" is on the northern wall of the Fatimid fortress in Cairo. Its two enormous rectangular towers were rebuilt in 1087 after a long period of popular uprisings. On this highly attractive frontal image signed Protain, one can admire the sculpted shields in the corners of the gate and on the towers, symbolizing victory and protection against invaders. After taking Cairo, Napoleon named all the towers along the wall of the fortress after the officers assigned to guard them. Their names are still engraved on the upper parts of the walls of the gate. SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUEThe massive architectural complex constructed by Sultan Hassan at the foot of the citadel in Cairo was built in the ostentatious style so characteristic of Mameluk architecture. Completed in 1356, the Sultan Hassan Mosque has a monumental gate and a 57m high minaret. This group of buildings, comprising a mausoleum that was never put to use, was strategically built on the site of a square that saw the start of a number of popular uprisings. The mosque was heavily inspired by Iranian models. Philae This plate is taken from a set of engravings dedicated to the Temple of Isis on the island of Philae. The final bastion of the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods, the temple of Isis was the last pagan temple to be in use before it was closed in the 6th century A.D. under Justinian. Construction on the temple began under the Ptolemies, a period of growth for the Isis cult. Isis was the sister and wife of Osiris and mother to Horus. Kom Ombo (Ombos) The Kom Ombo site, 40 kilometers from Aswan, is home to one of the best preserved ancient Egyptian temples, dedicated to Sobek, a crocodile god and Haroeris, a form of Horus. Built in the Ptolemaic era, it was actually founded during the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its massive Composite capitals and highly accomplished reliefs are captured accurately by the draughtsmen of the Institut d'Egypte, Jollois, Balzac and Cécile. The dual aspect of its design, intended for worship of two different divine triads - those of Sobek and Haroeris - is reproduced in great detail by the architects and engineers of the Egyptian campaign through this set of prints, which preceded the first archeological digs in the building by Auguste Mariette in 1828. Edfu This plate is taken from a series of views of the great temple at Edfu and the various buildings in its cultic complex. The temple of Horus, a jewel of Ptolemaic architecture and exceptionally well-preserved, is made up of a majestic entry gate and a hypostyle chamber, which are both extensively documented thanks to the engravings by the experts of the Institut d'Egypte. Begun in 237 BC by Ptolemy III and completed 180 years later under Tiberius, it proved an extraordinary sight for the draughtsmen come to explore the left bank of the Nile. Esna and its environs The town of Esna (Esneh or Latopolis in Bonaparte's time), lies fifty kilometers to the south of Luxor. The experts from the Institut de l'Egypte documented their discovery of its temple, dedicated to Khnum, one of the gods of creation who worked with clay and had the head of a ram; he controlled the life-giving flooding of the Nile, the source of fertility. He was associated with Nebt-uu, the mistress of the countryside and Menhyt, a goddess with the head of a lion. This temple, partially rebuilt during the Ptolemaic era, was added to right up to the reign of Tiberius. The draughtsmen also produced a number of views of the neighboring temples, most notably the less well-preserved temple of Contra-Latopolis to the north of Esna. Thebes Medinet-Habu Close to Thebes and Luxor on the left bank of the Nile, the city of Medinet-Habu is home to one of the most attractive temples of New Kingdom period Egypt, the mortuary temple of Ramses III. This dates from the middle of the 12th century BC, and is based on the famous Ramesseum of his predecessor, which it surpasses in size. A funerary temple celebrating the Pharaoh, the experts of the Institut d'Egypte set about creating cross-sections, plans and elevations, and most especially capturing its numerous bas-reliefs. The architects and draughtsmen also focused on the Royal Palace and its internal peristyle within the 12-metre fortress that encircles the religious complex, including the Temple of Amon, located at the south-east of the site and begun in the reign of Hatshepsut at the end of the 15th Century BC. Memnonium The Memnonium, a name used by visitors to the Valley of the Kings from 1750 to 1850, refers to a set of three royal buildings constructed during the New Kingdom: the Ramesseum, the Temple of Amenhotep III and the Temple of Sethi I. The draughtsmen and architects of Bonaparte's Institut, sent out on expedition across Upper Egypt from 1799 documented Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, even attempting to reconstruct some of the buildings on the basis of descriptions by Classical authors. The tomb of Ozymandias (one of the numerous names of Ramses II), in a very poor state, thus became the subject of very thorough study and an attempt to fill in its missing bits on the basis of the writings of Diodurus Siculus. This Greek historian of the Augustine period stayed in the valley of the Nile from 60-57 BC and his visit to the tomb of Ramses II is recounted in his monumental Bibliotheca Historica (Book I, XLVII-XLIX).At the same time, the experts also made extremely detailed studies and views of the Colossi of Memnon, all that remains of a huge memorial temple to Amenhotep III built on the road to the necropolis in the Valley of the Kings. These colossi were located at the entrance to the temple in front of a preliminary pylon made of brick. These two statues represent King Amenhotep III framed to the right by the great Royal Consort Tiy and to the left by the Queen Mother Mutemwiya. Hypogea and Biban el Moluk This plate is taken from a series of engravings of the hypogea in the Valley of the Kings (Biban el Moluk) in Thebes. Some are in color to show the vivid hues of the sarcophaguses and mysterious murals whose secret had yet to be broken by Jean-François Champollion. The draughtsmen of the Institut, including the famous Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, sent by Napoleon to cover Upper Egypt in 1799, capture with élan the royal mummies and the artifacts that accompanied the dead in their journey to the netherworld: urns, furniture, weapons, idols and the mummies of numerous mammals and birds. Karnak This plate is from a set on the Great Temple at Karnak, built during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses III. This enormous complex is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the Theban Triad of gods, Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Its sculptures, internal bas-reliefs and sunken reliefs on the external facades are intricately captured by the engineers of the Institut, while the architects worked out the complex groundplan of this edifice, which was divided into facades, colonnaded halls and sacral spaces reserved for the temple priests. The alley of the monumental sphinx which links the site to the Luxor site was also the subject of a plate by Lepère, an architect from the Institut who took part in the expedition across Upper Egypt. Dendera The experts executed views and drawings of the temples of Dendera (or Tentyra), a city in Upper Egypt 60km to the north of Luxor. They have captured, with an exceptional degree of graphic artistry, the thick, round nature of the sculpted reliefs of the great Temple of Hathor, built under the Ptolemies in the first half of the 1st century BC. They also produced interesting views of the neighboring temples as well as a selection of reliefs of the ""Dendera Zodiac"", a chapel dedicated to Osiris and located beneath the temple of Hathor. Its famous astronomical relief was discovered by the French General Desaix - stationed in Upper Egypt by Bonaparte from 1798 - and taken back to France in 1821 by Claude Lelorrain; it is now on display in the Louvre. Another astronomical and cosmological relief on the ceiling of the hypostyle hall of the Temple of Hathor is the subject of a magnificent plate by Jollois and Devilliers. This covers seven soffit coffers of the ceiling and is an immense allegorical image showing several levels of consciousness: that of cosmogony, the constellations and their effect on the Earth, the creation of Man, and the Nomes of Egypt, symbolized by 21 pairs of wings topped with the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white tiara of Upper Egypt. The Pyramids at Memphis The Giza Plateau, near Memphis, is home to three of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, the tombs of Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BC). The experts of the Institut, hurrying to Memphis, explored the plateau and made numerous views of these majestic pyramids, towering over inhabitants and mounted figures. They also made minutely detailed views of the epigraphs on the tombs adjacent to the pyramids, as well as views of the Sphinx of Gaza near the Pyramid of Khafre. Views of Alexandria A plate taken from a set of view of Alexandria as it was found by Napoleon's army in June 1798. Embarking in Toulon on the 14th May, his troops disembarked at Alexandria a month later and explored this port city before heading towards Cairo to take the capital. " Didot Paris _1803 "40,5x54cm" une feuille‎


Le Feu Follet - Paris

Phone number : 01 56 08 08 85

EUR300.00
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